Open Access: posting and reuse. [what is predatory?]

There has been some recent discussion about what it means to be a predatory journal, and who suffers as a result of these unscrupulous behaviors. And, while publishers bask under the safety of the illusion of a free market, Institutional Repositories are criticized for posting the manuscript version of articles with proper citation but without the specific publisher’s unique requirements, even after a 12 month embargo.

While trying to further the positive impact of spreading knowledge created at our higher education institutions, repository managers spend a great deal of time checking copyright, applying metadata and adding publisher’s approved statements to articles so readers are fully aware of the original place of publication. We do this because it makes articles more useful, but also because publishers demand it on their often lengthy, shifting, and unique set of requirements for publishing in repositories.

This is partially why, this spring, when colleagues found their article “Building Library Community Through Social Media” indexed in Google Scholar but pointing to a copy in ProQuest behind a paywall, I felt a particular frustration.

The author’s felt similarly frustrated and expressed it on Twitter. ProQuest replied on Twitter stating that “ProQuest provides many types of content, including OA.” Which would be acceptable if they left the content OPEN. They also state that “Our goal is to simplify the workflow for our users, to avoid looking in multiple places for quality content.” Which is interesting because we found this link on the popular site Google Scholar which does a pretty good job of simplifying the search workflow. And, because the article is already easily found through its original open access publication in LITA.

Further, ProQuest asked that our author “Please DM your contact details if you’d like to talk with us.” Maybe they thought that making a public (Twitter) conversation private would be a nice analogy of their actions around the article.

ProQuest failed to link to the published version. Their citation:

Building Library Community Through Social Media Young, Scott W H; Rossmann, Doralyn. Information Technology and Libraries (Online)34.1 (Mar 2015): 20-37. )

You will note that there is no DOI. And ,they are creating HTML versions of the ITAL articles, which, if you manage to get behind the paywall, omit all non-textual material (images, charts, graphs, etc.). This is very troubling.

I helped my colleague write a response to ProQuest that outlined our concerns, below.

My library colleagues, who are active advocates of open publication, are left frustrated with ProQuest. And while we remain hopeful that current (and future) open access library journals continue to provide options for open publication, that does not fix the issue at hand: ProQuest’s unethical indexing. ProQuest has not added a DOI to the citation in question or changed their practice in any visible way based on this interaction. If one definition of predatory is “seeking to exploit others”, then I would bet that ProQuest fits that pretty well.

NOTE: Some issues with the web indexing from the journal Information Technology and Libraries(ITAL) lead to the ProQuest version being the first search result for a few weeks. [Of the 7 versions currently available through Google Scholar, 6 link to the ITAL page or directly to the .pdf of their article from the ITAL page.] Although ProQuest’s unethical linking practice is now muted by the availability of the open access versions of the paper, the exchange should be a call to arms for OA options to flood the market where there clearly is a need and for authors to speak up when their content is hidden behind a paywall for commercial gain [without their permission].

The email exchange:


Dear [ProQuest],

I write to you in response to the following exchange I had recently with the ProQuest Twitter account.

The following article is available through a fully Open Access publication, which means that it is freely available to anyone with internet access.

Subsequent to publication, this article has been indexed by ProQuest and is currently made available through ProQuest, though it is behind a paywall with standard options for access to subscription content. This is troubling, as the content is available through an Open Access journal that is not routinely indexed by ProQuest.

When ProQuest replied on Twitter that they provide access to content, including OA, it is as if you confuse OA with a topic, like Economics or Biofilm. Open Access is about the freely available use are reuse of knowledge, which ProQuest’s paywall actively denies.

This is, in part, the justification for the CC-BY 3.0 license attached to this publication which allows for reuse contingent of attribution of authorship. Your use falls within this license mostly, although I would argue that the lack of a link back to the original posting is improper attribution: you have posted an incomplete citation with this article.

Reposting a freely-available article behind a paywall is poor practice. Your response on Twitter stated that “Our goal is to simplify the workflow for our users, to avoid looking in multiple places for quality content”, yet picking one article from a journal issue and posting it for subscription access does not seem to work in favor of that “simplification,” but rather adds to potential confusion for a researcher who finds yet another source for this article.

In light of this situation, I have a few questions: How did ProQuest come to index this particular article? Why does the citation on ProQuest’s preview page not include a link to the original posting? How does ProQuest justify reposting a freely-available article
behind a paywall?

Please help me better understand this situation.

Thank you for your time addressing this matter.  I look forward to your response.

The response from ProQuest:

Thank you for your patience and the time you’ve allowed me to ensure that I was providing you accurate details in my reply.

The journal Information Technology and Libraries has been indexed in Library and Information Science Abstracts (LISA) from ProQuest and its predecessors since 1968, when it appeared in print as the Journal of Library Automation. To make this information more apparent, we have asked our sister company Ulrich’s to update their coverage details, and will also request the journal’s publisher, the American Library Association, include this information on its publication site.

ProQuest includes many open access titles in our databases. Where the full text is made available inside the ProQuest platform, this is always through a formal license agreement with the publisher. In the case of Information Technology and Libraries, we have been licensing the full text from the American Library Association since 1987 and continued to license the journal after it moved to the new open access, online-only format in 2012. It’s an important title and widely used by researchers, who are accustomed to finding it within the ProQuest platform.

ProQuest is a key resource within the scholarly workflow and we have found that inclusion of high quality OA content in ProQuest boosts its dissemination and discovery by the academic community. Our goal is not to hide OA content behind paywalls, but to integrate it so that it’s discovered in context with other relevant scholarly content. We use end-users as our guides for decisions such as these, consulting usability studies that we conduct and also those from organizations focused on the research workflow.

We fully understand and appreciate your perspective on the matter of linking to the original version. It’s a thorny issue as there are no industry standards for citing articles appearing in open access journals, and the entire community is adapting to an OA landscape that is changing rapidly.   Here at ProQuest, we are evaluating and testing models that work for publishers, authors, as well as libraries and their patrons. Please know the feasibility of linking to author versions is of prime concern.

I hope this answers your questions and concerns. I’m happy to discuss this further.

December Publications

December was a busy month for publishing at MSU. We hope you enjoy looking through this list as much as we have enjoyed creating it. As always, if we are missing something let us know! [] And, if you cannot access an article, try the Library’s Citation Linker


Glacier National Park, MT, USA. Credit: Erich Peitzsch, USGS


December Publications from Montana State University

Nugent, Paul W., Joseph A. Shaw, and Nathan J. Pust. Radiometric calibration of infrared imagers using an internal shutter as an equivalent external blackbody. Optical Engineering. December 2014. Pages 123106.

Miller, Zachariah J., and Fabian D. Menalled. Impact of species identity and phylogenetic relatedness on biologically-mediated plant-soil feedbacks in a low and a high intensity agroecosystem. Plant and Soil. December 2014.

Peters, John W., Gerrit J. Schut, Eric S. Boyd, David W. Mulder, Eric M. Shepard, Joan B. Broderick, Paul W. King, and Michael W. W. Adams. [FeFe]- and [NiFe]-hydrogenase diversity, mechanism, and maturation. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta.

Thoman, Dustin B., Elizabeth R. Brown, Andrew Z. Mason, Allen G. Harmsen, and Jessi L. Smith. The Role of Altruistic Values in Motivating Underrepresented Minority Students for Biomedicine. BioScience. December 2014.

Boyd, Eric S., Trinity L. Hamilton, Kevin D. Swanson, Alta E. Howells, Bonnie K. Baxter, Jonathan E. Meuser, Matthew C. Posewitz, and John W. Peters. [FeFe]-Hydrogenase Abundance and Diversity along a Vertical Redox Gradient in Great Salt Lake, USA. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. December 2014. Pages 21947-21966.

Litt, Andrea R., Erin E. Cord, Timothy E. Fulbright, and Greta L. Schuster. Effects of Invasive Plants on Arthropods. Conservation Biology. December 2014. Pages 1532-1549.

Reddy, Gadi V. P., Shaohui Wu, Roberto Refinetti, Loke T. Kok, Roger R. Youngman, and Fang-Sen Xue. Photoperiod and Temperature Effects on the Adult Eclosion and Mating Rhythms in Pseudopidorus fasciata (Lepidoptera: Zygaenidae). Environmental Entomology. December 2014. Pages 1650-1655.

Cooksey, Keith E.. Regulation of the initial events in microalgal triacylglycerol (TAG) synthesis: hypotheses. Journal of Applied Phycology. November 2014.

Boyce, Richard D., Patrick B. Ryan, G. Niklas Noren, Christian Reich, Jon Duke, Nicholas P. Tatonetti, Gianluca Trifiro, Rave Harpaz, J. Marc Overhage, Abraham G. Hartzema, Mark Khayter, Erica A. Voss, Christophe G. Lambert, Vojtech Huser, and Michel Dumontier. Bridging Islands of Information to Establish an Integrated Knowledge Base of Drugs and Health Outcomes of Interest. Drug Safety. August 2014. Pages 557-567.

Davis, William E., Joshua A. Hicks, Rebecca J. Schlegel, Christina M. Smith, and Matthew Vess. Authenticity and self-esteem across temporal horizons. The Journal of Positive Psychology. April 2014. Pages 116-126.

Woodruff, D. Cary , and John R. Foster. The fragile legacy of Amphicoelias fragillimus (Dinosauria: Sauropoda; Morrison Formation latest Jurassic). Volumina Jurassica. December 2014. Pages 211-220.

Bekkerman, Anton, Heidi Schweizer, and Vincent Smith. The Impacts of the Canadian Wheat Board Ruling on the North American Malt Barley Markets. Canadian Journal of Agricultural Economics. December 2014. Pages 619-645.

Simanonok, Michael P., and Laura A. Burkle. Partitioning interaction turnover among alpine pollination networks: spatial, temporal, and environmental patterns. Ecosphere. November 2014. Pages art149-art149.

Shrestha, Sanjib K., Cheng-Wei T. Chang, Nicole Meissner, John Oblad, Jaya P. Shrestha, Kevin N. Sorensen, Michelle M. Grilley, and Jon Y. Takemoto. Antifungal amphiphilic aminoglycoside K20: bioactivities and mechanism of action. Frontiers in Microbiology. December 2014.

Shi, Xianming, Scott Jungwirth, Michelle Akin, Ron Wright, Laura Fay, David A. Veneziano, Yan Zhang, Jing Gong, and Zhirui Ye. Evaluating Snow and Ice Control Chemicals for Environmentally Sustainable Highway Maintenance Operations. Journal of Transportation Engineering. November 2014. Pages 05014005.

Eisenberg, Michael L. , Shufeng Li, Barry Behr, Renee Reijo Pera, and Mark R. Cullen. Relationship between semen production and medical comorbidity. Fertility and Sterility. January 2015. Pages 66-71.

Seifert, John G., and David A. Connor. The influence of commercial energy shots on response time and power output in recreational cyclists. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition. December 2014. Pages 56.

Newell, George E., Jennifer VanDerHeide, and Allison Wynhoff Olsen. High School English Language Arts Teachers’ Argumentative Epistemologies for Teaching Writing. Research in the Teaching of English. . Pages 95-119.

Tang, Wei, Liyan Song, Dou Li, Jing Qiao, Tiantao Zhao, Heping Zhao, and Benfang (editor) Lei. Production, Characterization, and Flocculation Mechanism of Cation Independent, pH Tolerant, and Thermally Stable Bioflocculant from Enterobacter sp. ETH-2. PLOS One. December 2014. Pages e114591.

Beliaev, Alexander S., Margie F. Romine, Margrethe Serres, Hans C. Bernstein, Bryan E. Linggi, Lye M. Markillie, Nancy G. Isern, William B. Chrisler, Leo A. Kucek, Eric A. Hill, Grigoriy E. Pinchuk, Donald A. Bryant, H. Steven Wiley, Jim K. Fredrickson, and Allan Konopka. Inference of interactions in cyanobacterial-heterotrophic co-cultures via transcriptome sequencing. ISME Journal. April 2014. Pages 2243-2255.

Huerta, E. A., Prayush Kumar, Sean T. McWilliams, Richard O\’Shaughnessy, and Nicolas Yunes. Accurate and efficient waveforms for compact binaries on eccentric orbits. Physical Review D. October 2014.

Thiel, C. W., R. M. MacFarlane, Y. Sun, T. Bottger, N. Sinclair, and R. L. Cone. Measuring and analyzing excitation-induced decoherence in rare-earth-doped optical materials. Laser Physics. October 2014. Pages 106002.

Bessire, Brody K., Sridhar A. Lahankar, and Timothy K. Minton. Pyrolysis of Phenolic Impregnated Carbon Ablator (PICA). ACS applied materials & interfaces. December 2014.

Ricciardelli, Lucia. American Documentary Filmmaking in the Digital Age: Depictions of War in Burns, Moore, and Morris.  December 2014. Pages 1-162.

Brileya, Kristen A., Laura B. Camilleri, Grant M. Zane, Judy D. Wall, and Matthew W. Fields. Biofilm growth mode promotes maximum carrying capacity and community stability during product inhibition syntrophy. Frontiers in Microbiology. December 2014.

Lacivita, Enza, Igor A. Schepetkin, Madia L. Stama, Liliya N. Kirpotina, Nicola A. Colabufo, Roberto Perrone, Andrei I. Khlebnikov, Mark T. Quinn, and Marcello Leopoldo . Novel 3-(1H-indol-3-yl)-2-[3-(4-methoxyphenyl)ureido] propanamides as selective agonists of human formyl-peptide receptor 2. Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry. December 2014. Pages 404-416.

McWethy, David B., Cathy Whitlock, Janet M. Wilmshurst, Jamie R. Wood, Matt S. McGlone, and Janet M. Wilmshurst. A High-Resolution Chronology of Rapid Forest Transitions following Polynesian Arrival in New Zealand. PLoS One. November 2014. Pages e111328.

Kopp, Willian, Felipe A. Silva, Lionete N. Lima, Sueli H. Masunaga, Paulo W. Tardioli, Roberto C. Giordano, Fernando M. Araujo-Moreira, and Raquel L.C. Giordano. Synthesis and characterization of robust magnetic carriers for bioprocess applications. Materials Science and Engineering: B . March 2015. Pages 217-228.

Michaud, Alexander B., John E. Dore, Deborah Leslie, W. Berry Lyons, David C. Sands, and John C. Priscu. Biological ice nucleation initiates hailstone formation. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres. November 2014. Pages 12,186-12,197.

Anderson, D. Mark, Resul Cesur, and Erdal Tekin. Youth depression and future criminal behavior. Economic Inquiry. January 2015. Pages 294-317.

Schmitt, J, F Jackson, and R. Hanna. Debris flow origin of an unusual Late Cretaceous hadrosaur bone bed in the Two Medicine Formation of western Montana. Hadrosaurs (book). December 2014.

Tripet, Brian P., Katelyn E. Mason, Brian J. Eilers, Jennifer Burns, Paul Powell, Andreas M. Fischer, and Valerie Copie. Structural and Biochemical Analysis of the Hordeum vulgare L. HvGR-RBP1 Protein, a Glycine-Rich RNA-Binding Protein Involved in the Regulation of Barley Plant Development and Stress Response. Biochemistry. Pages 7945-7960.

Schaible, George A., Gary A. Strobel, Morgan Tess Mends, Brad Geary, and Joe Sears. Characterization of an Endophytic Gloeosporium sp. and Its Novel Bioactivity with Synergistans. Microbial Ecology. December 2014. Pages 1-10.

Seguin, Rebecca, Leah Connor, Miriam Nelson, Andrea LaCroix, and Galen Eldridge. Understanding Barriers and Facilitators to Healthy Eating and Active Living in Rural Communities. Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism. December 2014. 2014. Pages 146502.

Benstead, Jonathan P., James M. Hood, Nathan V. Whelan, Michael R. Kendrick, Daniel Nelson, Amanda F. Hanninen, and Lee M. Demi. Coupling of dietary phosphorus and growth across diverse fish taxa: a meta-analysis of experimental aquaculture studies. Ecology. October 2014. Pages 2768-2777.

Xu, Xing, Zhonghe Zhou, Robert Dudley, Susan Mackem, Cheng-Ming Chuong, Gregory M. Erickson, and David J. Varricchio. An integrative approach to understanding bird origins. Science. December 2014. 6215 .Pages 1253293.

Anderson, Ryan, Erica Eggleton, and Lifeng Zhang. Development of two-phase flow regime specific pressure drop models for proton exchange membrane fuel cells. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy. January 2015. Pages 1173-1185.

Hansen, Andrew J., and Linda B. Phillips. Which tree species and biome types are most vulnerable to climate change in the US Northern Rocky Mountains?. Forest Ecology and Management. February 2015. Pages 68-83.

Fritz, B. G. , D. K. Walker, D. E. Goveia, A. E. Parker, and D. M. Goeres. Evaluation of Petrifilm Aerobic Count Plates as an Equivalent Alternative to Drop Plating on R2A Agar Plates in a Biofilm Disinfectant Efficacy Test. Current Microbiology. December 2014. Pages 1-7.

Hoyt, Teri R. , Erin Dobrinen, Irina Kochetkova, and Nicole Meissner. B cells modulate systemic responses to Pneumocystis lung infection and protect on-demand hematopoiesis via T cell-independent, innate mechanism when type-I-IFN-signaling is absent . Infection and Immunity. December 2014. Pages Infection .

Babbitt, William Randall, Zeb W. Barber, Scott H. Bekker, Michael D. Chase, Calvin Harrington, Kristian D. Merkel, R. Krishna Mohan, Tia Sharpe, Colton R. Stiffler, Aaron S. Traxinger, and Alex J. Woidtke. From spectral holeburning memory to spatial-spectral microwave signal processing. Laser Physics. September 2014. Pages 094002.

Oja, Terhi , Brianna Blomqvist, Kelli Buckingham-Meyer, Darla Goeres, Pia Vuorela, and Adyary Fallarero. Revisiting an agar-based plate method: What the static biofilm method can offer for biofilm research. Journal of Microbiological Methods. December 2014. Pages 157-160.

Long, John A., Rick L. Lawrence, Perry R. Miller, Lucy A. Marshall, and Mark C. Greenwood. Adoption of cropping sequences in northeast Montana: A spatio-temporal analysis. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment. December 2014. Pages 77-87.

Spuler, S. M., K. S. Repasky, B. Morley, D. Moen, M. Hayman, and A. R. Nehrir. Field deployable diode-laser-based differential absorption lidar (DIAL) for profiling water vapor. Atmospheric Measurement Techniques. November 2014. Pages 11265-11302.

Rebane, Aleksander. Causality and associative holography of time-and-space domain events. Laser Physics. September 2014. Pages 094010.

Hauptman, Blake S., Frederic T. Barrows, Stephanie S. Block, T. Gibson Gaylord, John A. Paterson, and Wendy M. Sealey. Potential for a Mycotoxin Deactivator to Improve Growth and Performance of Rainbow Trout fed High Levels of an Ethanol Industry Co-Product, Grain Distiller’s Dried Yeast. North American Journal of Aquaculture. July 2014. Pages 297-304.

Kirk, Karin B., Anne U. Gold, Tamara Shapiro Ledley, Susan Buhr Sullivan, Cathryn A. Manduca, David W. Mogk, and Katryn Wiese. Undergraduate Climate Education: Motivations, Strategies, Successes, and Support. Journal of Geoscience Education. November 2014. Pages 538-549.

Johnson, Gregory D., Charlie S. Bahnson, Patricia Ishii, Zachary N. Cochrane, D. Grant Hokit, Paul J. Plummer, Lyric C. Bartholomay, and Bradley J. Blitvich. Monitoring sheep and Culicoides midges in Montana for evidence of Bunyamwera serogroup virus infection. Veterinary Record Open. 2014. Pages e000071.

Li, Yongxin, Yaoyao Zhang, Scott Jungwirth, Nicholas Seely, Yida Fang, and Xianming Shi. Corrosion inhibitors for metals in maintenance equipment: introduction and recent developments. Corrosion Reviews. December 2014. Pages 163-181.

Ragen, Devon L., Erin E. Nix, Rachel L. Endecott, Patrick G. Hatfield, Mark K. Petersen, and Janice G. P. Bowman. Individual mineral supplement intake by ewes swath grazing or confinement fed pea-barley forage. Animal Feed Science and Technology. December 2014.

Roediger III, Henry L., Michelle L. Meade, David A. Gallo, and Kristina R. Olson. Bartlett revisited: Direct comparison of repeated reproduction and serial reproduction techniques. Journal of Applied Research in Memory and Cognition. December 2014. Pages 266-271.

Collins, J. Michael, and Carly Urban. The dark side of sunshine: Regulatory oversight and status quo bias. Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization. November 2014. Pages 470-486.

Simpson, Patricia Anne. Provocations for the Future. Women in German Yearbook. December 2014. Pages 225-235.

November publications from MSU

The research output from MSU consistently amazes me. Here is a list of November publications.


Greene, Kaylin M., and Jennifer L. Maggs. Revisiting the Time Trade-Off Hypothesis: Work, Organized Activities, and Academics During College. Journal of Youth and Adolescence. November 2014.

Vaterlaus, J. Mitchell, Troy E. Beckert, Sarah Tulane, and Clare V. Bird. “They Always Ask What I’m Doing and Who I’m Talking to”: Parental Mediation of Adolescent Interactive Technology Use. Marriage & Family Review. November 2014. Pages 691-713.

Manlove, Kezia R., E. Frances Cassirer, Paul C. Cross, Raina K. Plowright, and Peter J. Hudson. Costs and benefits of group living with disease: a case study of pneumonia in bighorn lambs (Ovis canadensis). Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B. December 2014. 1797.Pages 20142331.

Chung, Dawoon, Bridget M. Barker, Brittney Merriman, Sara J. Blosser, Charles C. Carey, Auralien Mazurie, Ernst R. Werner, Beatrix E. Lechner, Hubertus Haas, Chao Cheng, Wenjie Xu, Aaron P. Mitchell, Kengo Morohashi, and Thomas K. Mitchell. ChIP-seq and In Vivo Transcriptome Analyses of the Aspergillus fumigatus SREBP SrbA Reveals a New Regulator of the Fungal Hypoxia Response and Virulence. PLoS Pathogens. November 2014.

Makomenaw, Matthew. Goals, Family, and Community: What Drives Tribal College Transfer Student Success. Journal of Student Affairs Research and Practice. November 2014. Pages 380-391.

Rae, Nicol C., and John J. Jr. Pitney. Class Connections: Congressional Classes and the Republicans of 1994. The Forum. October 2014. Pages 519-540.

Jutila, Aaron A. , Donald L. Zignego, William J. Schell, and Ronald K. June. Encapsulation of Chondrocytes in High-Stiffness Agarose Microenvironments for In Vitro Modeling of Osteoarthritis Mechanotransduction. Annals of Biomedical Engineering . November 2014.

Thiel, C. W. , N. Sinclair, W. Tittel, and R. L. Cone. Tm3+: Y3Ga5O12 Materials for Spectrally Multiplexed Quantum Memories. Physical Review Letters. October 2014. Pages 160501.

Cross, Wyatt F., James M. Hood, Jonathan P. Benstead, Alexander D. Huryn, and Daniel Nelson. Interactions between temperature and nutrients across levels of ecological organization. Global Change Biology. November 2014.

Wickstrom, Megan H.. Piecing It Together. Teaching Children Mathematics. . Pages 220-227.

Jo, Hang Jin, Jaebum Park, Mechelle M. Lewis, Xuemei Huang, and Mark L. Latash. Prehension synergies and hand function in early-stage Parkinson’s disease. Experimental Brain Research. November 2014.

Hamerly, Timothy, Brian P. Tripet, Michelle Tigges, Richard J. Giannone, Louie Wurch, Robert L. Hettich, Mircea Podar, Valerie Copia, and Brian Bothner. Untargeted metabolomics studies employing NMR and LC-MS reveal metabolic coupling between Nanoarcheum equitans and its archaeal host Ignicoccus hospitalis . Metabolomics. November 2014.

Liu, Chang, and Yi Xu. Feature Selection Based on Confidence Machine . arXiv. October 2014. arXiv:1410.5473v1.

Sainju, Upendra M., William B. Stevens, Thecan Caesar-TonThat, and Cliff Montagne. Nitrogen dynamics affected by management practices in croplands transitioning from Conservation Reserve Program. Agronomy Journal. October 2014. Pages 1677-1689.

Khan, Qasim A., and Kent A. McVay. Impact of Tillage, Irrigation Method, and Nitrogen Rate on Sugar Beet Productivity. Agronomy Journal. September 2014. Pages 1717-1721.

Anderson, D. Mark , Daniel I. Rees, and Joseph J. Sabia. Medical Marijuana Laws and Suicides by Gender and Age. American Journal of Public Health. December 2014. Pages 2369-2376.

Richards, R. R., K. K. Gates, and B. L. Kerans. Effects of Simulated Rapid Water Level Fluctuations (Hydropeaking) on Survival of Sensitive Benthic Species. River Research and Applications. October 2014. Pages 954-963.

Tonkel, Kirk C., Brian G. Rector, William S. Longland, Lindsay A. Dimitri, and Michael A. Ivie. Stephanopachys conicola Fisher (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) Feeding on Decaying Western Juniper (Juniperus occidentalis Hooker) Berries: A Novel Association for Bostrichidae. The Coleopterists Bulletin . September 2014. Pages 403-406.

Blosser, Sara J., Brittney Merriman, Nora Grahl, Dawoon Chung, and Robert A. Cramer. Two C4-sterol methyl oxidases (Erg25) catalyse ergosterol intermediate demethylation and impact environmental stress adaptation in Aspergillus fumigatus. Microbiology. November 2014. Pages 2492-2506.

Washburn, Kathryn E. , Endre Anderssen, Sarah J. Vogt, Joseph D. Seymour, Justin E. Birdwell, Catherine M. Kirkland, and Sarah L Codd. Simultaneous Gaussian and Exponential Inversion for Improved Analysis of Shales by NMR Relaxometry . Journal of Magnetic Resonance. January 2015. Pages 7-16.

Vatland, Shane J., Robert E. Gresswell, and Geoffrey C. Poole. Quantifying stream thermal regimes at multiple scales: Combining thermal infrared imagery and stationary stream temperature data in a novel modeling framework. Water Resources Research. December 2014.

Kalinowski, ST, and JH Powell. A parameter to quantify the degree of genetic mixing among individuals in hybrid populations. Heredity. November 2014.

Plowright, Raina K., Peggy Eby, Peter J. Hudson, Ina L. Smith, David Westcott, Wayne L. Bryden, Deborah Middleton, Peter A. Reid, Rosemary A. McFarlane, Gerardo Martin, Gary M. Tabor, Lee F. Skerratt, Dale L. Anderson, Gary Crameri, David Quammenm, David Jordan, Paul Freeman, Lin-Fa Wang, Jonathan H. Epstein, Glenn A. Marsh, Nina Y. Kung, and Hamish McCallum. Ecological dynamics of emerging bat virus spillover. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B. January 2015. 1798.Pages 20142124.

Leoni, Giovanna, Jeannie Gripentrog, Connie Lord, Marcia Riesselman, Ronen Sumagin, Charles A. Parkos, Asma Nusrat, and Algirdas J. Jesaitis. Human neutrophil formyl peptide receptor phosphorylation and the mucosal inflammatory response. Journal of Leukocyte Biology. January 2015. Pages 1-15.

Smith, Jessi L., and Meghan Huntoon. Women’s Bragging Rights Overcoming Modesty Norms to Facilitate Women’s Self-Promotion. Psychology of Women Quarterly. December 2014. Pages 447-459.

Pugesek, Bruce H.. Fractal cycle turning points: A theory of human social progression. Ecological Complexity. December 2014. Pages 157-175.

Romanak, Katherine D., Brad Wolaver, Changbing Yang, George William Sherk, Janis Dale, Laura M. Dobeck, and Lee H. Spangler. Process-based soil gas leakage assessment at the Kerr Farm: Comparison of results to leakage proxies at ZERT and Mt. Etna. International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control. November 2014. Pages 42-57.

Harvey, Emily, Jeffrey Heys, and Tomas Gedeon. Quantifying the effects of the division of labor in metabolic pathways. Journal of Theoretical Biology. November 2014. Pages 222-242.

Jiang, Haitao, and Binhai Zhu. A linear kernel for the complementary maximal strip recovery problem. Journal of Computer and System Sciences. . Pages 1350-1358.

5 Things To Do Now at The Library

Make the most of your semester by doing these five things at the Library:


1) Add us to your contacts: You can text us, phone us, email us, chat with us, or even talk to us face-to-face. Add our information to your contact list so you can contact us as soon as you have a research question. Or, you can connect with us via social media!

2) Schedule a research consultation with your subject specialist: When you get your first research assignment, schedule an appointment with your subject specialist. He or she can show you how to search the Library’s millions of resources effectively and point you in the direction of the best resources for your topic. Want immediate assistance? Explore our online research guides with the best resources on every topic, from agriculture to Yellowstone.

3) Sign up for a group study room: The Library’s has group study rooms you can use to collaborate on projects, watch videos, or study with friends. Sign up now to use a rooms for up to 2 hours per day! And don’t forget that you can borrow any equipment you need in addition to what’s already in these rooms.

4) Make a playlist: What are your goals this year? Do you want to be a PowerPoint wizard, become an amazing public speaker, or budget with Excel? Log in to to find thousands of professional video tutorials on technology and professional skills. Create a playlist of the classes you want to take and work on them whenever you have time!

5) Explore Special Collections: Did you know that the Library has a large collection of rare and unique materials in Special Collections on the library’s 2nd floor, which are available to anyone for research? If you’re taking a class requiring original research this semester, take a few moments to explore Special Collections, which includes the University’s Archives, and information in areas such as Montana History, Trout and Salmon, Native Americans, Agriculture and Ranching, and much more! And, you can always study in Special Collections, even if you’re not using any of their other resources. It’s nice and quiet there!

Scholarly Communication, Open Access, & Not Getting Too Comfortable

In a recent post on Association for College and Research Libraries’ TechConnect (, Bohyun Kim pays tribute to the late Aaron Swartz and his advocacy of making information freely accessible to everyone. In this article, Kim suggests that physical library spaces and the contents within–computers, books, etc–should be open to all. Likewise, she encourage libraries not to get “too comfortable” in how they provide online information access. Kim asks, “Will an academic library be able to remain as a sanctuary for all ideas and a place for sharing knowledge for people’s intellectual pursuits regardless of their institutional membership? Or will it be reduced to a branch of an institution that sells knowledge to its tuition-paying customers only?”

Kim’s challenge is interesting as it calls into question the fundamental idea of what the future role of the academic library should be. Here at the MSU Library, we are led by a land-grant mission to serve the citizens of the State of Montana. Similarly, we are a regional depository of federal government information, so we provide the American public with free access to this information. The Library arranges access to thousands of journals and databases. In each negotiation with the providers of these resources, we ensure that anyone who walks into the library can access these items.

The publishing industry is less willing to allow academic libraries to provide online access to anyone anywhere. While our paid resources are available online to all students, faculty, and staff of MSU, they are not available to the general community outside of the library. In an effort to address these types of problems, there is the Open Access (OA) movement. OA removes the price barriers between an author’s work and his or her readers, addresses the problems of a costly scholarly publishing lifecycle, and sets the foundation for future research and scholarship. Peter Suber, Director, Harvard Open Access Project, defines Open Access literature as “digital, online, free of charge, and free of most copyright and licensing restrictions. What makes it possible is the internet and the consent of the author or copyright-holder.” (

There are two main types of OA delivery – OA repositories and OA journals. On March 19th at the MSU Library Scholars Showcase (, there will be an official launch of ScholarWorks (, an OA repository for the MSU community. In ScholarWorks, MSU faculty, staff, and students can add their articles, presentations, working papers, conference proceedings, preprints, and datasets to an archival repository that is free and open to all. Benefits of ScholarWorks include: increased access and visibility to research, increased opportunities for collaboration, faster communication with other scholars, long-term archiving, and increased rates of citation. With the launch of ScholarWorks, MSU joins over three-thousand OA repositories across the world (see the Registry of Open Access Journals for a searchable list of other OA sites

In a meeting with MSU Graduate Students in January, I was pleased that about a third of the group of 75 students in attendance had heard of open access. In this meeting, I encountered a variety of OA understandings, such as the fact that authors may have to pay for their articles to appear in open access journals, so it is good to write such costs into grant proposals. Likewise, I heard some misunderstandings about Open Access, including the idea that PLoS is the only credible peer-reviewed OA journal. While this post isn’t intended to be a thorough OA primer, it is my hope that it prompts you to learn more about OA on your own.

Two sites of particular interest may be the Directory of Open Access Journals ( which contains 50 journals which “exercise quality control on submitted papers through an editor, editorial board and/or a peer-review system.” Another resource of interest may be SCOAP3 ( MSU will be contributing to this consortium which facilitates Open Access publishing in High Energy Physics by re-directing subscription money. Currently, libraries buy journal subscriptions to support the peer-review process and allow their patrons to read articles. This project will change the model so that libraries contribute to the consortium, which pays centrally for the peer-review process and makes articles free for everyone. This is a new initiative and the implications for the broader publishing community are unclear at this point. Through this example and with ScholarWorks, the MSU Library is committed to supporting efforts which broaden information access and lower costs.

Movements such as these are gaining momentum nationally and internationally. On February 22, 2013, the federal Office of Science and Technology Policy issued a memorandum directing “Federal agencies with more than $100M in R&D expenditures to develop plans to make the published results of federally funded research freely available to the public within one year of publication and requiring researchers to better account for and manage the digital data resulting from federally funded scientific research” ( The National Institutes of Health has a similar public access policy which requires deposit into PubMed Central within 12 months of publication ( and MSU’s ScholarWorks helps fulfill mandates and missions such as these.

The MSU Library is an active participant in the ongoing Open Access movement. We are excited about the potential of ScholarWorks and other Open Access initiatives still in development at MSU. We hope you’ll join us in efforts to make and keep scholarly communication available to everyone.

Updated Digital Collection: Native Peoples of Northern Great Plains Digital Images Database

A new version of Native Peoples of Northern Great Plains Digital Images Database now available.

Native Peoples of Northern Great Plains Digital Images Database

The Native Peoples of Northern Great Plains Digital Images Database is an online searchable database of photographs, paintings, ledger drawings, documents, serigraphs, and stereographs from 1874 through the 1940’s. The major tribes represented in this collection include the Assiniboine, Blackfeet, Cheyenne, Chippewa-Cree, Crow, Kootenai, Nez Perce, Salish (Flathead), Shoshone, and Sioux.

In 1998, a partnership between Montana State University Library and the Museum of the Rockies collected and digitized images from the library collections of three Montana State University campuses (Billings, Bozeman and Havre), plus the Museum of the Rockies and Little Big Horn College in Crow Agency, Montana.

In 2012, the database and user interface were upgraded to a scalable set of web 2.0 systems. The 2012 technical upgrade included:

  • Upgrading code to current 2012 LAMP (Linux Apache MySQL PHP/Perl/Python) Standards
  • Migrating the original database schema to the Library of Congress’s MODS (Metadata Object Description Schema) schema for increased data sharing between academic, museum and library institutions
  • Enabling SEO (Search Engine Optimization) for increased world-wide-web accessibility
  • Enabling the GUI (Graphic User Interface) to accommodate mobile browser devices

We invite you to visit the new version of the Native Peoples of Northern Great Plains Digital Images Database website.

How do I cite sources?

We have style sheet guide handouts at the reference desk and online style sheets for the American Psychological Association (APA), Modern Language Association (MLA), and Turabian/Chicago styles.

If you are looking for other style guides, you can often find them online from other libraries. Here are a few examples:

  • American Chemical Association (ACS) quick guide or in print in reference at QD8.5.A25 2006
  • American Institute of Physic (AIP) Style Manual (free online) or in print in reference at QC5.45.A45 1990
  • American Sociological Association (ASA) 3rd ed. (2007) guide or see the full manual in reference at HM569.A54 2007
  • And more links at Purdue’s OWL

Is there someone in the library who can help me use the resources, find information or help me with my research project?

Reference Librarians can help you find specific facts and figures, teach you how to use the catalog and databases, or help you with other more complex research needs. Librarians are available at the reference services desk (located on the first floor of the Renne Library) for drop in assistance as well as by telephone (994-3171), email, chat, IM, and by appointment. Please visit our Reference Services page for more information including a list of reference librarians by their subject liaisons.